The stunning white calcium pools, which cling to the side of a ridge, have long been one of the most famous picture postcard views of Turkey. Pamukkale, literally meaning “cotton castle”, is also the site of the ancient city of Hierapolis of which there are many interesting ruins, and is a very popular destination for a short visit. Pamukkale was formed when a spring with a high content of dissolved calcium bicarbonate cascaded over the edge of the cliff, which cooled and hardened leaving calcium deposits. This formed into natural pools, shelves and ridges, which tourists could plunge and splash in the warm water.
Hotels were springing up from the 1970s to cater for the large influx of tourists, and shortly afterwards UNESCO declared it a World Heritage Site. But by the 1990s, this took its toll on the state of the calcium pools and restrictions were placed on these travertine terraces. Many hotels were knocked down, visitors are only allowed on major paths around the sites, and must remove footwear to stand on the calcium deposits. This seems to have been a successful move, as the water supply is now used for preservation and some of the damaged calcium deposits have been strengthened.
The summers are hot and dry, and winters warm and rainy.
Places to Visit
Visiting the ancient cities of Hierapolis and Leotikeia,
Seeing the colours reflected in the travertine pools at sunrise and sunset,
Bathing in the warm, therapeutic pools,
Walking around the Yesildere waterfalls.
In the summer, Pamukkale has some direct bus services to many parts of the country, although most transfer to another in Denizli, 18km south. There are no direct services in the winter, but regular public buses still run to and from Denizli. There is no main bus station in Pamukkale, but all buses use the dolmus stop. From Denizli, there are regular services to Istanbul (12 hours), Ankara (7 hours), Selcuk (3 hours) and Izmir (4 hours), as well as most resorts on the south coast.
The nearest train station is at Denizli, with three daily trains to and from Izmir and an overnight train for Istanbul, taking 14 hours. There is a daily service to Afyon taking five hours.
Cardak Airport, near Denizli, is 65 km east of Pamukkale, and has a daily flight to Istanbul.